Svalbard Bibliography


Tor SVEUM, Per Kyrre REYMERT, Marit Anne HAUAN: Svalbardlitteratur: en bibliografi = Svalbard literature: a bibliography / . [Tromso: Universitetsbiblioteket i Tromso, Avd. Tromso museum, 1987]

Marie TREMAINE (compiler): Arctic Bibliography (U.S. Dept of Defense and the Arctic Institute of North America, 15 vols.)


Patrick D. BAIRD: The Polar World

Felice BELLOTTI, The Great North translated from the Italian by James Cadell (London A. Deutsch [1957])

Julius BUDEL and Walter IMBER: Spitsbergen: Lonely Isle Under the Midnight Sun (1970 Berne, Kummerly and Frey)

Abel CHAPMAN, Wild Norway: with chapters on Spitsbergen, Denmark, etc.,. (London; New York: E. Arnold, 1897)

Louis Herbert GRAY: Spitsbergen and Bear Island (1919, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office) (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1974; the Inquiry handbooks v. 9)

Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section. Spitsbergen. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1920. Handbook no. 36.

Tim GREVE: Svalbard: Norway in the Arctic (1975, Oslo, Grodahl)

Magnar NORDERHAUG, Svalbard (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, c1984)

Robert Neal RUDMOSE-BROWN (1879-1957): Spitsbergen, an Account of Exploration, Hunting, The Mineral Riches & Future Potentialities of an Arctic Archipelago (1920, London, Seeley Service & Co.; or Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott & Co.)


Norway, Norges Svalbard- og Ishavs-undersokelser. The place-names of Svalbard (Oslo: Kommisjon hos J. Dybwad, 1942)

Norway, The Place-names of Svalbard / Norges Svalbard-og Ishavs- undersokelser, leder, Adolf Hoel. Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1991.

Norway, official standard names approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (Washington, DC: Defense Mapping Agency, 1990)

U.S. Bureau on Geographic Names,


Stanislaw BARANOWSKI, The Subpolar glaciers of Spitsbergen seen against the climate of this region (1977) Volume 3 of Polish Scientific Spitsbergen Expedition

Marit E. CHRISTIANSEN, The crustacea decapoda of Isfjorden; a comparison with the Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition in 1908 (Tromso, 1962. Tromso Museum. Acta borealia. A. Scientia no. 19)

Deutsches Marineleitung (1926) with 6 Karten und 26 Kustenansichten

Olav GJAREVOLL & Olaf I. Ronning, Flowers of Svalbard (Oslo : Universitetsforlaget, c1980) (Studio-trykk).

Johan GRAM, Undersokelser over bituminose kul fra Spitsbergen og Andoen (Kristiania, I kommission hos H. Aschehoug & co., 1922)

Werner HINZ. Zur Okologie der Tundra Zentralspitsbergens (Oslo: Norsk polarinstitutt, 1976.

Vidar HISDAL, Geography of Svalbard: a short survey (Oslo: Norsk polarinstitutt : [Universitetsforlaget], 1976) Polarhandbok nr. 2

Vidar HISDAL, Geography of Svalbard. 2d ed. (Oslo: Norsk polarinstitutt, 1985) Polarhandbok nr. 2.

Audun HJELLE & Y. OHTA, Contribution to the geology of north western Spitsbergen (Oslo : Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1974)

Audun HJELLE og Ornulf LAURITZEN, Geological map of Svalbard 1:500,000 : sheet 3G, Spitsbergen northern part (Oslo: Norsk polarinstitutt, 1982)

Romuald Z. KLEKOWSKI and Jan Marcin WESLAWSKI (eds), Atlas of the marine fauna of Southern Spitsbergen (Wroclaw: Ossolineum, 1990-)

Baron Nils Adolf Erik NORDENSKJOLD, Sketch of the Geology of Spitsbergen (1867) (includes a color lithographed fold-out geological map)

Valentin Nikolaevich SOKOLOV, Geology of Spitsbergen, 1965; translated from the Russian by J. E. Bradley, edited by W. B. Harland. Boston Spa, National Lending Library for Science & Technology, 1970)

V. N. SOKOLOV (ed.), Stratigraphy of Spitsbergen, translated by E. T. Francis and G. Klener. West Yorkshire, Eng.: British Library, Lending Division, c1977)

Swedish Polar Year Expedition, Sveagruvan, Spitzbergen, 1932-1933 general introduction : terrestrial magnetism. Stockholm : Published under the direction of the Swedish National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics, 1939.

Symposium on Svalbard's Geology (1975 : Oslo) The geological development of Svalbard during the Precambrian, Lower Palaeozoic, and Devonian / Symposium on Svalbard's Geology, Oslo, 2-5 June, 1975. Oslo : Norsk polarinstitutt, 1979.


Palaeontological Spitsbergen studies = (Paleontologiczne badania Spitsbergenu) / edited by Gertruda BIERNAT and Wanda Szymanska. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnicto Naukowe, 1982- Series title: Palaeontologia Polonica no. 43.

Hans CHRISTIANSSON. Excavations at Russekeila in West Spitsbergen [edited by] H. Christiansson and P. Simonsen. Tromso, Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 1968- Series title: Tromso museums skrifter ; v. 13, Hefte 1.

Hans CHRISTIANSSON. Stone age finds from Spitsbergen. By Hans Christiansson and Povl Simonsen. Tromso, Universitetsforlaget, 1970. Series title: Acta Borealia. B, Humaniora ; no. 11.

Steven L. FORMAN et al, Svalbard radiocarbon date list I; (Boulder, Colo. : University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, 1990. Occasional paper no. 47).

Richard A. FORTEY, The Ordovician trilobites of Spitsbergen (Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt 1980)

John G. GJELBERG, Upper Devonian (Famennian)--Middle carboniferous succession of Bjornoya: a study of ancient alluvial and coastal marine sedimentation. (Oslo: Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1981.

Philippe JANVIER, Les Cephalaspides du Spitsberg: anatomie, phylogenie et systematique des Osteostraces siluro-devoniens, revision des Osteotraces de la formation de Wood Bay (Devonien inferieur du Spitsberg) (Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1985).

Hans Arne NAKREM, Bryozoans from the lower Permian Voringen Member (Kapp Starostin Formation), Spitsbergen, Svalbard (Oslo : Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1994) Series title: Skrifter / Norsk polarinstitutt ; nr. 196.

[redkollegiia V.F. STARKOV, R.L. Rozenfel'd, V.I. Zav'ialov], Ocherki istorii osvoeniia Shpitsbergena (Moskva: In-t arkheologii AN SSSR, 1990)

Erik Andersson STENSIO, The Downtonian and Devonian vertebrates of Spitsbergen : part I, family Cephalaspidae (New York : Arno Press reprint, 1980)


Sir William Martin CONWAY, Early Dutch and English voyages to Spitsbergen in the seventeenth century, including Hessel Gerritsz. "Histoire du pays nomme Spitsberghe", 1613, translated into English, for the first time by Basil H. Soulsby,... (1904; Nendeln/Liechtenstein, Kraus Reprint, 1967). Works issued by the Hakluyt Society ; 2nd ser., no. 11.

Sir William Martin CONWAY: No Man's Land, a history of Spitsbergen from its discovery in 1596 to the beginning of the scientific exploration of the country, by Sir Martin Conway. (1906, Cambridge University press; reprinted 1995).

Nathan Haskell DOLE: America in Spitsbergen; the Romance of an Arctic Coal-mine, with an introduction relating the history and describing the land and the flora and fauna of Spitsbergen (1922, Boston, Marshall Jones; 2 volumes). [Founding of Longyearbyen]

The University of Wyoming Library reportedly has an album of photographs of the coal mines at Longyear City, Spitsbergen,

ELLIS, Men and Whales (1991) [Includes brief history of Smeerenburg]

Adolf HOEL: Svalbards Historie 1596-1965 (1966-67, Oslo, Sverre Kildahl, 3 vol)

Frederik Caspar WIEDER (ed.), The Dutch discovery and mapping of Spitsbergen (1596-1829); ed. by order of the Netherland Minister of foreign affairs (Amsterdam, Netherland Ministry of foreign affairs and the Royal Dutch geographic society, 1919) (1919, The Hague, Martinus Nyhoff).


William S. CARLSON: Lifelines through the Arctic (1962)

Robin Rolf CHURCHILL. Marine management in disputed areas: the case of the Barents Sea / Robin Churchill and Geir Ulfstein. London ; New York : Routledge, 1992. Series title: Ocean management and policy series.

R. St. J. MacDONALD: The Arctic Frontier (1966)

Trygve MATHISEN: Svalbard in the Changing Arctic (1954, Oslo, Gyldendal Norsk Forlag)

Trygve MATHISEN: Svalbard in International Politics 1871-1925 (1954, Oslo, Broggers)

Norway stamps: 50th anniversary of the union of Spitsbergen (1975)

Willy OSTRENG: Politics in High Latitudes, The Svalbard Archipelago (1978, Montreal, McGill-Queen's University Press. Translated by R. I. Christopherson)

Storm Roland SIMONSON, Norway's Nordpolitikk and the Soviet challenge to the Arctic Flank (1980 University of Virginia master's thesis)

Elen C. SINGH: The Spitsbergen (Svalbard) Question: United States Foreign Policy, 1907-1935 (1980, Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, ISBN 82-00-01971-3)

Odd SKARSTAD of Rolv LEA, Transportplan for Svalbard, (Oslo: Transportokonomisk institutt, [1990])

Gustav SMEDAL, Acquisition of Sovereignty over Polar Areas (1931)

Lage Fabian Wilhelm STAEL von HOLSTEIN, Friherre, Norway in Arcticum; from Spitsbergen to--Greenland? By Baron, Dr. Lage v. Stael-Holstein (Copenhagen, Levin & Munksgaard, 1932)

Vilhjalmur STEFANSSON (1879-1962): The Northward Course of Empire (1922, NY, Harcourt)

Geir ULFSTEIN: Svalbard Treaty: From Terra Nullius to Norwegian Sovereignty


Thomas COOK Ltd., Handbook to Norway and Denmark, with Iceland & Spitsbergen (8th edition, London, 1911).

Hamburg-Amerika Linie, Der Island-und Spitzbergenfahrer (c1900)

Edwin A. MacDONALD: Polar Operations

UMBREIT, Guide to Spitsbergen (1991, 1st)

UMBREIT, Guide to Spitsbergen (1997, 2nd)

Ward, Lock & Co. Handbook to Norway, 2nd edition (c1945)


Paul ADAMS, Arctic Island Hunter (1961)

Roald AMUNDSEN and Lincoln ELLSWORTH, First Crossing of the Polar Sea (1927)

S. BACSTROM M.D., Account of a voyage to Spitsbergen in the year 1780. Communicated by the author. [Phil. mag. July 1799.]. IN: Pinkerton, John, 1758-1826. A general collection of the best and most interesting voyages and travels (London, 1808-14)

Liv BALSTAD, North of the Desolate Sea (1958)

Henry Aston BARKER, Description of a view of the north coast of Spitzbergen, now exhibiting in the large rotunda of Henry Aston Barker's panorama, Leicester-Square; painted from drawings taken by Lieut. Beechey, who accompanied the... (London, Printed by Jas.-W. and Chas. Adlard, 1820)

Richard E. BYRD, Skyward (1928)

Joachim Heinrich CAMPE: Polar scenes, exhibited in the voyages of Heemskirk and Barenz to the northern regions : and in the adventures of four Russian sailors at the island of Spitzbergen / translated from the German of M.... London: Printed for J. Harris and Son, corner of St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1821 (London : Printed by S. & R. Bentley, Dorset-street) (1822, New York, Samuel Wood & Sons)

Jakob Karl Emil CHYDENIUS: Svenska Expeditionen till Spitsbergen ar 1861 unter Ledning af Otto Torrell (1865, Stockholm, P. A. Norstedt & Soner)

Sir William Martin CONWAY, First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897) [Includes two large maps "Part of Spitsbergen" and "Wijde Bay"]

Wilbur CROSS: Ghost Ship of the Pole () about Nobile

Lord DUFFERIN (Frederick Temple Blackwood, Marquis of Dufferin and Ava), Letters from high latitudes: being some account of a voyage in 1856, in the schooner yacht "Foam" to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spitzbergen (New York, R. Worthington, 1882)

FORSTER, Hist. Voy. to the North ()

Robert FOTHERBY, Narrative of a voyage to Spitzbergen in the year 1613, at the charge of the Fellowship of English merchants for the discovery of new trades; commonly called the Muscovy company: with a description of the country,... (Worcester 1860)

A. R. GLEN, Young Men in the Arctic (1935)

A. R. GLEN, Under the Pole Star (1937)

GODFREY, Cradle of the North Wind (1938)

Seton GORDON, Amid Snowy Wastes (1922)

P. Heywood HADFIELD: With the S.S. Ophir (Orient Pacific liner) on a cruise to Spitzbergen and the Fiords of Norway..., (London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co, 1904)

Wally HERBERT: Across the Top of the World (1969)

Adolf HOEL, The Norwegian Svalbard expeditions, 1906-1926 (Oslo: J. Dybwad, 1929)

Elmer Ulysses HOENSHEL, The Cruises of the Neptune, (Staunton VA, the McClure Co., 1922)

Frank ILLINGWORTH, North of the Circle (1951)

Alfred JAHN (ed.), Results of investigations of the Polish Scientific Spitsbergen Expeditions: 1970-1974 (Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1975-<1986; Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis ; no. 251, etc.)

John LAING, Voyage to Spitzbergen (1825)

James LAMONT, Seasons with the sea-horses, or, Sporting adventures in the northern seas (London: Hurst and Blackett, c1861 [1867?])

James LAMONT, Yachting in the Arctic seas, or, Notes of five voyages of sport and discovery in the neighbourhood of Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya; edited and illustrated by W. Livesay (London : Chatto and Windus, 1876)

Thomas A. LATTA, Observations on ice-bergs, made during a short excursion in Spitzbergen (Edinburgh: for A. Constable, 1820)

LUNDGREN & CARLSSON, Svalbard, Land Beyond Northcape (1994)

Sir Clements Robert MARKHAM (ed.), The Voyages of William Baffin 1612-1622 (London, Hakluyt Society #63, 1881)

MARTENS, Journal d'un Voyage au Spitzbergen et au Groenlandt, (1671; 1715 French edition)

MAXWELL & RUUD, The Year Long Day (1976)

Walter MITTELHOLZER: By Airplane towards the North Pole (1925, Boston, Houghton)

Jens MUNK [or MONCK], Jens Munks Navigatio septentrionalis, ed. P. Lauridsen (Kjobenhavn, Gyldendal 1883)

Fridtjof NANSEN: Farthest North

Fridtjof NANSEN: In Northern Mists

Fridtjof NANSEN: Hunting and Adventure in the Arctic

Fridtjof NANSEN, Spitzbergen. Mit 180 zeichnungen, karten und diagrammen vom verfasser. 2. aufl. (Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1922)

Alfred Gabriel NATHORST, Swedish explorations in Spitzbergen 1758-1908. Historical sketch. J. M. Hulth: Bibliography. G. De Geer: List of maps. (Stockholm, Centraltryckeriet, 1909)

Umberto NOBILE: My Polar Flights

Hugo NUNLIST, Spitsbergen; the story of the 1962 Swiss Spitsbergen Expedition. Translated from the German by Oliver Coburn (South Brunswick NJ, Barnes 1966; London, Kaye, 1966)

1st OXFORD University expedition to Spitsbergen, 1921. Spitsbergen papers ... Scientific results of the first Oxford university expedition to Spitsbergen, 1921 (London, Oxford university press, H. Milford, 1925-)

Hans Hermann PHILIPP, Ergebnisse der W. Filchnerschen vorexpedition nach Spitzbergen 1910, mit einer von dr. W. Filchner aufgenommenen, von O. Wand entworfenen und gezeichneten karte sowie beitragen der herren dr. Barkow, dr.... (Gotha, J. Perthes, 1914). Erganzungsheft nr. 179 zu "Petermanns mitteilungen".

Clive PHILLIPPS-WOLLEY, The trottings of a tenderfoot: a visit to the Columbian fiords, and Spitzbergen (London, Bentley 1884.)

Constantine John PHIPPS: Voyages

George P. PUTNAM: Andree; the Record of a Tragic Adventure

Herbert RICCHE?, Der Hornsund (1970), based on German Spitsbergen expedition of 1937-38

Christiane RITTER, A Woman in the Polar Night (1955)

Scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen Expedition in 1934. Part I-VIII. Stockholm, Centraltryckeriet, 1936.

William SCORESBY, Arctic Regions (18--)

William SCORESBY [jun.], Account of the seven icebergs of Spitzbergen (Edinburgh: Printed for A. Constable, 1820.

Jack Denton SCOTT: Journey into Silence (1976, NY, Reader's Digest Press/ Crowell)


SMITH, Down Denmark Strait (1980)

T. & C. STAMP: William Scoresby, Arctic Scientist

Richard Lightburn SUTTON, An Arctic safari, with camera and rifle in the land of the midnight sun... With more than one hundred illustrations, made from photographs taken by the author and by Richard L. Sutton, jr.,... (St. Louis, The C.V. Mosby co., 1932)

Tatsuo TATSUMI (ed.), The Japanese Scientific Expeditions to Svalbard, 1983-1988; editorial committee, Takashi Oguti, Tatsuo Matsuda, Keiji Higuchi (Tokyo: Kyoikusha, c1990)

John Campion WELLS: The Gateway to the Polynia: A Voyage to Spitzbergen, from the Journal of John C. Wells (1873, London, Henry S. King & Co.)

Adam WHITE, A Collection of Documents on Spitsbergen & Greenland (includes English text of Martens, 1671, Voyage into Spitzbergen... and a translation from Isaac de La Peyrere's Histoire du Groenland, and God's power... (New York, B. Franklin reprint [1964?])

YMER et al, Swedish Explorations in Spitzbergen, 1758-1908 (1909)


Alfred ANDERSCH, Hohe D/Breitengrade oder Nachrichten von der Grenze. Mit 48 Farbtafeln nach Aufnahmen von Gisela Andersch, (Zurich, Diogenes-Verlag, 1969)

Haakon BORDE (ed), Svalbard og havomradene (Oslo: Gyldendal, c1983); Bygd og by i Norge.

Eystein FJARLI, Krigens Svalbard (Oslo: Gyldendal, 1979) (Drammen: Harald Lyche & co.).

Carl LAUSBERG, Das Nordland, mit 7 farbigen Tafeln und einem Einbandbild nach Dreifarbenaufnahmen, von Geheimrat Prof.Dr.A. Miethe. (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Bierman, 1913).

Bjarne NORDNES, Med isbjorn rundt veggene (Oslo, Gyldendal, c1982)


Dale FIFE, North of danger; map and decorations by Haakon Sather. New York : Dutton, c1978. A Unicorn book. [juvenile fiction]

Thomas KIRKWOOD (& Goir Finne): The Svalbard Passage [novel], (c1981, New York and London, Macmillan)

MacLEAN, Bear Island (1971, novel)


National Geographic: 12/29/1894;

National Geographic: 11/1901;

National Geographic: 7/1907;

Walter MITTELHOLZER: National Geographic: 8/1928;

National Geographic: 4/1932;

National Geographic: 7/1948;

National Geographic: 4/1971;

National Geographic: 8/1978.

TITLE(s): Polar Regions: Spitsbergen faces its post-Cold War future. In: The Geographical magazine. JAN 01 1993 v 65 n 1 p 16

Iten, Oswald. TITLE(s): Spitsbergen Faces Modernity. In: Swiss review of world affairs. NOV 01 1989 v 39 n 8 p 16

Laplante, Robert J. TITLE(s): North to Spitsbergen. In: The Musk-ox. 1991 n 38 p 55

Wiltsie, Gordon. TITLE(s): Tough Sledding. Summary: On the severe northern island of Spitsbergen, "enemies" become friends and "failure" becomes success. In: Powder. DEC 01 1992 v 21 n 4 p 68

Hagevik, Ellen Marie. TITLE(s): Svalbard Museum: the world's northernmost museum. In: Museum international. 1994 v 46 n 2 p 37

Kaltenborn, Bjorn P. & Emmelin, Lars. TITLE(s): Tourism in the High North: Management Challenges and Recreation Opportunity Spectrum Planning in Svalbard, Norway. In: Environmental management. JAN 01 1993 v 17 n 1 p 41

Jasinski, Marek E. TITLE(s): Russian Hunters on Svalbard and the Polar Winter. In: Arctic. JUN 01 1991 v 44 n 2 p 156

Weslawski, J.M. & Kwasniewski, S. & Wiktor, J. TITLE(s): Winter in a Svalbard Fiord Ecosystem. In: Arctic. JUN 01 1991 v 44 n 2 p 115

Rossnes, G. TITLE(s): Eider exploitation by hunters and trappers on Svalbard during the 19th and early 20th centuries. In: The Polar record. JAN 01 1991 v 27 n 160 p 47

Mitchell, B.J. & Bungum, H. & Chan, W.W. TITLE(s): Seismicity and present-day tectonics of the Svalbard region. In: Geophysical journal international. JUL 01 1990 v 102 n 1 p 139

Krzyszowska, A.J. TITLE(s): Human impact on tundra environment at the Ny-Alesund Station, Svalbard. In: Polar research. DEC 01 1989 v 7 n 2 p 119

Vtyurin, B.I. TITLE(s): Ground Ice on Svalbard. In: Polar geography and geology. JAN 01 1989 v 13 n 1 p 1

Dowdeswell, Julian A. TITLE(s): On the nature of Svalbard icebergs. In: The Journal of glaciology. 1989 v 35 n 120 p 224

Campbell, H. J. TITLE(s): The Triassic bivalves Daonella and Halobia in New Zealand, New Caledonia, and Svalbard / H.J. Campbell. Lower Hutt, N.Z. : Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Ltd, 1994. Series title: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences monograph 4. Series title: New Zealand Geological Survey paleontological bulletin 66.


Willem BARENTZ (d.1597);


Stephen BENNET

Friderich MARTENS;

Jens MONCK [or MUNK] (1579-1628)

Johann Reinhold FORSTER (1729-1798)

or Johann Georg Adam FORSTER (1754-1794)

Thomas PENNANT (1726-1798)

Constantine John PHIPPS (1744-1792); polar voyage 1773

Henry Aston BARKER (1774-1856)

Bernard O'REILLY, Esq.

Baron Nils Adolf Erik NORDENSKJOLD (1832-1901);

James LAMONT (1828-1913);

William SCORESBY (1760-1829);

William SCORESBY Jun. (1789-1857);


Fridtjof NANSEN (1861-1930)

Gunnerius Ingvald ISACHSEN (1868-1939);

Joachim Heinrich CAMPE, 1746-1818.

Adam WHITE (1817-1879)


Anders Kristian ORVIN (1889-?);

Robert Neal RUDMOSE-BROWN (1879-1957);

William Speirs BRUCE (1867-1921);

Hans Hermann PHILIPP (1878-)

Vilhjalmur STEFANSSON (1879-1962).

Sir William Martin CONWAY (1856-1937)

Richard Lightburn SUTTON, 1878-1952.

Richard Lightburn SUTTON, Jr.,

Adolf HOEL (1879-1964);

Nathan Haskell DOLE (1852-1935);

John Munro LONGYEAR ()


Alfred Gabriel NATHORST (1850-1921)


Alfred ANDERSCH (1914- )

Eystein FJARLI (1917-)


Elmer Ulysses HOENSHEL (1864-)

Johan GRAM (1868-)

Lage Fabian Wilhelm STAEL von HOLSTEIN, Friherre (1886-)


Sir Clements Robert MARKHAM (1830-1916)

Elen C. SINGH (1943- )

Erik Andersson STENSIO, 1891-


Gustav SMEDAL (1888-)

Roald AMUNDSEN (1872-1928)

Louis Herbert GRAY (1875-1955)

Magnar NORDERHAUG (1939-)

Tor SVEUM (1945-)

Odd SKARSTAD (1940-)


Albert I of Monaco (1848-r1889-d1922)

Frederick Temple Blackwood, Marquis of Dufferin and Ava (1826-1902)


This page last revised July 1, 1997

Return to the Svalbard Republic home page.